Hypersensitivity type 2

Type II hypersensitivity - Wikipedi

  1. Type II hypersensitivity, in the Gell and Coombs classification of allergic reactions, is an antibody mediated process in which IgG and IgM antibodies are directed against antigens on cells (such as circulating red blood cells) or extracellular material (such as basement membrane)
  2. There are four different types of hypersensitivities, and the second type or type II hypersensitivity is sometimes called cytotoxic hypersensitivity because a lot of disorders caused by this hypersensitivity involve antibody mediated destruction of healthy cells
  3. Type II hypersensitivity, also known as antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity, is caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies directed against antigens on cells or extracellular materials. The reaction leads to cytotoxic processes involving antibodies and the complement system

Type II hypersensitivity reaction also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity is the antibody mediated destruction of healthy cells. It is primarily mediated by antibodies of the IgG or IgM classes which are one or more tissue specific. Complement, phagocytes and K cells also play a role Type II hypersensitivity reaction involves antibody mediated destruction of cells. It is also known as cytotoxic reaction. In this hypersensitivity reaction, specific antibody (IgG or IgM) bound to cell surface antigen and destroy the cell. If the cell is microorganism, killing of cell is beneficial to host Type II hypersensitivity • Mediated by abs directed towards antigens present on cell surfaces or the extracellular matrix (type IIA) or abs with agonistic/antagonistic properties (type IIB). • Mechanisms of damage: - Opsonization and complement- and Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis - Complement- and Fc receptor-mediated inflammatio Type 3 Hypersensitivity is also known as Hypersensitivity to immune complexes, including: General reaction Skin: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Arthus reaction. Kidneys: Lupus Nephritis. Lungs: Aspergillosis. Blood vessels: Polyarteritis. Joints: Rheumatoid Arthritis Type I: Type II: Type III: Type IV: Allergen-specific IgE antibodies bind to mast cells via their Fc receptor. When the specific allergen binds to the IgE, cross-linking of IgE induces degranulation of mast cells. IgG or IgM antibody binds to a cellular antigen, leading to complement activation and cell lysis

Type II hypersensitivity - Video Explanation! Osmosi

Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction Concise Medical Knowledg

  1. Type II hypersensitivity is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and may affect a variety of organs and tissues. The antigens are normally endogenous, although exogenous chemicals (haptens) which can attach to cell membranes can also lead to type II hypersensitivity. Drug-induced hemolytic anemia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia are such examples
  2. Other articles where Type II hypersensitivity is discussed: immune system disorder: Type II hypersensitivity: Allergic reactions of this type, also known as cytotoxic reactions, occur when cells within the body are destroyed by antibodies, with or without activation of the entire complement system. When antibody binds to an antigen on the surface of a target cell
  3. Type 2 hypersensitivity reactions may occur in response to host cells (i.e. autoimmune) or to non-self cells, as occurs in blood transfusion reactions. Type 2 is distinguished from Type 3 by the location of the antigens - in Type 2, the antigens are cell bound, whereas in Type 3 the antigens are soluble

Type II hypersensitivity reaction refers to an antibody-mediated immune reaction in which antibodies (IgG or IgM) are directed against cellular or extracellular matrix antigens with the resultant cellular destruction, functional loss, or damage to tissues 2. Tuberculin-type hypersensitivity reaction. Tuberculin reaction is a typical example of delayed hypersensitivity. Tuberculin skin test determines whether an individual has been exposed previously to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or not. In this test, a small amount of tuberculin protein is injected intradermally. If skin, at the site of. Type 2 hypersensitivity This type of hypersensitivity, also called antibody-mediated hypersensitivity is characterized by the body producing antibodies against antigens it should normally leave alone, like host antigens or harmless exogenous antigens. Opsonization is an important term here

Type I Anaphylactic hypersensitivity 2. Type II Cytolytic (cytotoxic) hypersensitivity 3. Type III Arthus type และ immune complexes hypersensitivity 4. Type IV Cell mediated (delayed) hypersensitivity. วิน เชยชมศรี ภาควิชาสัตววิทยา คณะวิทยาศาสตร. Type II Hypersensitivity is the process by which IgG or IgM binds to a cell to cause injury or death (Antibody Dependent Cytotoxicity). This process has the same mechanism of action as normal humoral immunity except it is targeted at the body's own cells instead of pathogens Type II hypersensitivities, also called cytotoxic hypersensitivities, are the result of antibody (IgG and IgM) interactions with body cells and tissues that lead to cell destruction. Once bound to a cell, the antibody initiates a cascade of events, known as complement, that causes inflammation and cell lysis

Share this information to your medico friends Also subscribe to the channel for more such videos #pathology#physiology #medicalmylife #Pranavjain Instagr.. Type II hypersensitivity reactions involve IgG and IgM antibodies directed against cellular antigens, leading to cell damage mediated by other immune system effectors. Type III hypersensitivity reactions involve the interactions of IgG, IgM, and, occasionally, IgA 1 antibodies with antigen to form immune complexes. Accumulation of immune complexes in tissue leads to tissue damage mediated by other immune system effectors Type II hypersensitivity is an antibody-dependent process in which specific antibodies bind to antigens, resulting in tissue damage or destruction.Flashcards.. Hypersensitivity Type 2. STUDY. PLAY. Name for Type 2 Hypersensitivity. Antibody-mediated cell killing or dysfunction. Effectors of Type 2. IgG and IgM. Diseases of Type 2. Autoimmune reactions!-Myasthenia gravis-Graves' disease-Basement membrane damage-Hemolytic rx

Type II hypersensitivity reaction Overview. Type II hypersensitivity reactions, or cytotoxic reactions, are antibody-mediated and responsible for a number of autoimmune disorders. Clinical features, diagnostics, and treatment depend on the underlying etiology (see Hypersensitivity classification above) Type II Hypersensitivity is one of the basic mechanisms by which immune-mediated injury to host tissues can occur. The reaction occurs due to direct binding of antibody to host tissues resulting in either functional derangement of the tissue or inflammatory damage. Binding of antibody to host tissues can be due to a number of etiologies Type II hypersensitivity reactions are caused by IgG, IgA, or IgM antibodies against cell surface and extracellular matrix antigens. The antibodies damage cells and tissues by activating complement, and by binding and activating effector cells carrying Fc γ receptors. • Red blood cells (blood groups) must be cross-matched for transfusion Allergic conjunctivitis is an example of this type of hypersensitivity. Type 2 h . (cytotoxic h.) is caused by an interaction of antibody and antigens on cell surfaces. Examples: Graves' disease, myasthenia gravis. Type 3 h. (immune-complex mediated h.) is mediated by a combination of antigen-antibody. Example: systemic lupus erythematosus. Type II Hypersensitivity: Transfusion reactions Produced by mismatched blood types Destroys foreign RBC by complement-mediated lysis triggered by IgG Produces fever, intravascular clots, lower back pain, Hgb in urine Free Hgb produced has 2 fates: passes to the kidneys - hemoglobinuria Breaks down to bilirubin..can be toxic Type II.

Hypersensitivity reactions characterized as type II and type III reactions are mediated by antibodies belonging to the IgG, IgM, and, in some cases, IgA or IgE isotypes. The distinction between these two forms of hypersensitivity lies in the type and location of antigen involved and the way in which antigen is brought together with antibody 2. Type II Hypersensitivity (Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity): This type of hypersensitivity involves IgG antibodies and the complement system and results in cell destruction. IgM may also take part in cell damaging reactions. Cytotoxic hypersensitivity is the result of transfusion of incompatible blood of a donor to a recipient, although this is of. Antibody-mediated (type II) hypersensitivity. IgG and IgM antibodies specific for cell surface or extracellular matrix antigens can cause tissue injury by activating the complement system, by recruiting inflammatory cells, and by interfering with normal cellular functions. Immune complex-mediated (type III) hypersensitivity

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Type II hypersensitivity reactions involve IgG and IgM antibodies directed against cellular antigens, leading to cell damage mediated by other immune system effectors. Type III hypersensitivity reactions involve the interactions of IgG, IgM, and, occasionally, IgA1 antibodies with antigen to form immune complexes Type IV reactions are further subdivided into type IVa, IVb, IVc, and IVd based on the type of T cell (CD4 T-helper type 1 and type 2 cells) involved and the cytokines/chemokines produced. Delayed hypersensitivity plays a crucial role in our body's ability to fight various intracellular pathogens such as mycobacteria and fungi Type IV hypersensitivity is involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and infectious diseases (tuberculosis, leprosy, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis, leishmaniasis, etc.) and granulomas due to infections and foreign antigens. Another form of delayed hypersensitivity is contact dermatitis (poison ivy (figure 6), chemicals, heavy metals, etc.) in which the lesions are more. Type 2 hypersensitivity. Type 2 hyperdensitivitiy reactions come about when an individual produces self reactive B cells that are able to escape central tolerance mechanisms, in the body these B cells become activated by self antigens on the surface of host cells and release antibodies, leading to an inappropriate IgG or IgM response

Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity- Mechanism and

Type 2 hypersensitivity. This type of hypersensitivity, also called antibody-mediated hypersensitivity is characterized by the body producing antibodies against antigens it should normally leave alone, like host antigens or harmless exogenous antigens. Opsonization is an important term here. Normally, when a bacterium or virus enters the body. Introduction. Hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) can be considered as an overreactive immune response. HSR can be classified into four categories. type I, II, III, and IV. type I, II, and III are antibody mediated. type IV is cell mediated. Speed of reaction Types: Hypersensitivity reactions are classified into four types. Hypersensitivity classification [1] [2] Summary of pathophysiology Examples; Type I: immediate: Preformed IgE antibodies coating mast cells and basophils are crosslinked by contact with free antigen Summary Type II Hypersensitivity Reactions (T2HSR) are a type of unwanted immune reaction caused by antibodies. Specifically, antibodies recognize and bind to antigens expressed by our own cells. The result of antibody binding causes 3 things: direct cell death and lysis, inflammation, or impaired function if the antibody targets a cell-surface receptor -cause for type 2 hypersensitivity is not know, most likely due to an autoimmune process describe secondary IMHA patients have formed Ab to their red blood cells, or other cells because of cross reactivity of an antibody that was initially produced by an infectious agent or because of new epitopes that are formed following exposure to an.

a local subacute antibody-mediated hypersensitivity (type III) reaction. intradermal injection of antigen induces antibodies, which form antigen-antibody complexes in the skin. characterized by edema, necrosis, and activation of complement. rheumatoid arthritis. anti-IgM Fc region antibody complex with antigen Type I hypersensitivity occurs as a result of exposure to an antigen. The response to the antigen occurs in two stages: the sensitization and the effect stage. In the sensitization stage, the host experiences an asymptomatic contact with the antigen. Subsequently, in the effect period, the pre-sensitized host is re-introduced to the antigen. Type II hypersensitivity is aided by antibodies of IgM or IgG classes, complement, phagocytosis, and natural killer cells. Some of the examples of type II hypersensitivities are: drug induced hemolytic anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, Goodpasture's syndrome, Myasthenia gravis, Grave's disease etc

Macrophage angiotensin II type 2 receptor triggers

The first three types are antibody-mediated and the fourth type is mediated mainly by T-cell and macro-phases i.e. cell-mediated (Table 11.1 and 11.2; Fig. 11.2). 1. Type I Hypersensitivity: Type I hypersensitive reactions are the com­monest type among all types which is mainly induced by certain type of antigens i.e. allergens Antibiotic related hypersensitivity reactions may be one of four different types: Type I reactions, which are IgE mediated and may lead to anaphylaxis; Type II reactions that are antibody-mediated and may result in thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, or hemolytic anemia; Type III reaction that involves an immune complex formation such as vasculitis.

Key Points • Type II hypersensitivity, also called cytotoxic hypersensitivity, occurs when antibodies (and complement) destroy normal cells. • The destruction of transfused red blood cells when administered to a mismatched recipient is an example of type II hypersensitivity. The resulting disease is due to the lysis of the transfused red cells by antibodies and complement Learn type 2 hypersensitivity with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of type 2 hypersensitivity flashcards on Quizlet Match the type of hypersensitivity to the description. 1. Antibody mediated 2. Cell mediated 3. Immune complex 4. Immediate. It is an IgE mediated hypersensitivity in which first exposure causes antigen binding to B-cells which is presented to T-cells (Th2) cells. This causes isotype switching to IgE and these IgE antibodies are secreted Definition of type 1 hypersensitivity reaction This is also called immediate hypersensitivity when an IgE response is directed against the antigens like pollens and leads to the release of pharmacological mediators, such as histamine IgE-sensitized mast cells, and produce an acute inflammatory reaction with S/S like asthma or rhinitis This case report discusses Type I hypersensitivity in ferrets following exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inoculum, observed during a study investigating the efficacy of candidate COVID-19 vaccines. Following a comprehensive internal root-cause investigation, i

The sequence of events in type 1 hypersensitivity. Type 2 hypersensitivity. This type of hypersensitivity, also called antibody-mediated hypersensitivity is characterized by the body producing antibodies against antigens it should normally leave alone, like host antigens or harmless exogenous antigens. Opsonization is an important term here type 2 mediated hypersensitivity is mediated specifically by what class of antibodies and where? IgG and IgM involves a circulating antibody and the antigen is usually bound to surface of a cell circulating or in a tissu Ten percent of patients report penicillin allergy, but more than 90% of these individuals can tolerate penicillins. Skin testing remains the optimal method for evaluation of possible IgE-mediated penicillin allergy and is recommended by professional societies, as the harms for alternative antibiotics include antimicrobial resistance, prolonged hospitalizations, readmissions, and increased costs

Types I-III are all antibody mediated while Type IV is cell-mediated. Type I. Type I is referred to as immediate hypersensitivity, or more commonly as anaphylaxis. It has a rapid onset and is mediated by IgE. It usually has a widespread effect on the body. Type I hypersensitivity relies on the body being exposed to an antigen, priming mast cells In summary, our findings indicate that murine MCP-3 contributes to eosinophil accumulation during type-2 hypersensitivity-type pulmonary granuloma formation, endothelial cells likely represent a major source, and its production in this model is promoted by IL-4. These findings potentially are relevant to eosinophilic conditions such as. A transfusion with an incompatible ABO blood type may lead to a strong, potentially lethal type II hypersensitivity cytotoxic response called hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) (Figure 19.5). For instance, if a person with type B blood receives a transfusion of type A blood, their anti-A antibodies will bind to and agglutinate the transfused. Hypersensitivity reactions of type I, type III, and type IV are well known, although, especially for types I and III, they are rarely encountered. Type-I reactions are most frequently seen related to application of polymers in the oral cavity, such as orthodontic bonding and fissure sealant materials

Type IV reactions are further subdivided into type IVa, IVb, IVc, and IVd based on the type of T cell (CD4 T-helper type 1 and type 2 cells) involved and the cytokines/chemokines produced. [1] Delayed hypersensitivity plays a crucial role in our body's ability to fight various intracellular pathogens such as mycobacteria and fungi A hypersensitivity reaction is an inappropriate or exaggerated response to an antigen or an allergen. The traditional classification for hypersensitivity reactions is that of Gell and Coombs and is currently the most commonly known classification system. It divides the hypersensitivity reactions into the following 4 types

Type II hypersensitivity reaction: Mechanism and examples

Type II hypersensitivity is an antibody-dependent process in which specific antibodies bind to antigens, resulting in tissue damage or destruction (see Fig. 2-29B). If the antigen is present on cell surfaces, antibody binding can result in cell lysis through the in situ fixation of complement Hypersensitivity reactions can be divided into four types: type I, type II, type III and type IV, based on the mechanisms involved and time taken for the reaction. Frequently, a particular clinical condition (disease) may involve more than one type of reaction Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (Hypersensitivity pneumonitis) อิมมูโนโกลบูลินิจี; ระบบคอมพลีเมนต์; ประเภทที่สี่ Type IV: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), cell-mediated immune memory response, antibody-independent: Contact dermatitis; Mantoux tes Type I, or immediate hypersensitivity, encompasses IgE-mediated responses to foreign antigens. These reactions may be minor and local or may be severe and generalized. In its most extreme form, type 1 hypersensitivity or allergy is expressed as a lethal shock syndrome called anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic manifestation of the. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), also known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or immune thrombocytopenia, is a type of thrombocytopenic purpura defined as an isolated low platelet count with a normal bone marrow in the absence of other causes of low platelets. It causes a characteristic red or purple bruise-like rash and an increased tendency to bleed


In both of these reactions, T cells may play an accomplice role in generating these auto-specific antibodies, although some of these reactions under Type 2 hypersensitivity would be considered normal in a healthy immune system (for example, Rhesus factor reactions during child-birth is a normal immune response against child antigens) Type 1 hypersensitivity can be further classified into immediate and late-phase reactions. The immediate hypersensitivity reaction occurs minutes after exposure and includes release of vasoactive amines and lipid mediators, whereas the late-phase reaction occurs 2-4 hours after exposure and includes the release of cytokines


Type IV hypersensitivity is a cell-mediated immune reaction. In other words, it does not involve the participation of antibodies but is due primarily to the interaction of T cells with antigens. The T cells involved in type IV reactions are memory cells derived from prior stimulation by the same antigen 1. Type III hypersensitivity reaction 2. Type II hypersensitivity reaction 3. Type I hypersensitivity reaction Choices: a. Involves IgG and IgM binding to soluble antigens and creating immune.

Hypersensitivity: Type 1, 2, 3 and 4, Causes and

The difference between four types of hypersensitivity reacions. 2. The immunopathological mechanism of Type II hypersensitivity reactions. 3. Subtypes of Type II hypersensitivity reaction and their mechanism of injury . 4. Different diseases associated with different subtypes. 5. Pathophysiology of myasthenia gravis and Graves' disease During the first phase, induction of hypersensitivity, exposure of the organism to antigen results in (1) recognition of the antigen by cells of the immune system; (2) proliferation (multiplication) of the types of immune cells that recognize and respond to that antigen; and (3) long-term storage of the information required to recognize and. Type II hypersensitivity can lead to tissue damage by three main mechanisms: (1) direct cellular destruction (e.g., autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia), (2) inflammation (e.g., Goodpasture's syndrome and acute rheumatic fever), and (3) disrupting cellular function (e.g., myasthenia gravis and Graves' disease)

Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV- Summary in table

ADVERTISEMENTS: Type II hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by IgM and IgG antibodies against cell surface and extracellular matrix antigens. After binding with the antigens, the Fc region of antibodies initiates the type II reaction by the following two ways: ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. Fc region of the antibody activates the complement system through the classical complement pathway. [ Define type II hypersensitivity. type II hypersensitivity synonyms, type II hypersensitivity pronunciation, type II hypersensitivity translation, English dictionary definition of type II hypersensitivity. adj. 1. Highly or excessively sensitive. 2. Responding excessively to the stimulus of a foreign agent, such as an allergen. hy′per·sen. Big difference: Type 1 is mediated by the IgE antibody and responsible for anaphylaxis, hay fever, allerg etc. Allergy skin test can identify these. Type 2 is mediated by IgG or IgM antibody and complement proteins that are cytotoxic that ends up killing the target cell. Examples of this are hemolytic anemia, Graves disease, Myasthenia gravis, Rheumatic heart disease, etc Type 2 Hypersensitivity Case Study, advantages outweigh disadvantages essay topics, ap synthesis essay example prompts, 8 page literary analysis essa

Clues for the differential diagnosis of hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity Type I, Type II, Type III, Type I

Drug hypersensitivity results from interactions between a pharmacologic agent and the human immune system. These types of reactions constitute only a small subset of all adverse drug reactions For example, the late-phase IgE-mediated reaction may peak 12-24 hours after contact with allergen, and T H 2 cells and eosinophils contribute to the inflammation as well as IgE (see Chapter 23).. In contrast to other forms of hypersensitivity, type IV hypersensitivity is transferred from one animal to another by T cells, particularly CD4 T H 1 cells in mice, rather than by serum Click to read more on it.Furthermore, what is an example of type 2 hypersensitivity? Type II hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by antibodies, such as IgG and IgM, directed against antigens, which cause cell destruction by complement activation or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.Examples include blood transfusion reactions, erythroblastosis fetalis, and autoimmune hemolytic. This type of hypersensitivity comes from a cell-mediated response instead of from antibodies like in the other types. In particular, the T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell in the body, have something to do with the development of the condition, so it's also called cell-mediated hypersensitivity

Chapter 12: Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction and ADCC

Type 2 ( Antibody Mediated ) Hypersensitivity Reaction-Mechanism-Diseases and Examples. •Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction is mediated by antibodies directed against the Antigens (intrinsic or extrinsic and normal or altered) present on the cell surface or extracellular matrix Type III hypersensitivity is designated as immune complex hypersensitivity. This reaction occurs through the formation of antigen-antibody complexes that activate complement and result in tissue damage (Fig. 5-20). The cell or tissue injury is similar to a type II hypersensitivity reaction, although the underlying pathogenesis is different Drug hypersensitivity reactions can lead to different clinical pictures depending on the underlying immunological mechanism. Diagnosis tests are already available to assess the most frequent drugs hypersensitivity reactions, which are mediated by specific IgE or T cells. However, it remains challenging to diagnose type 2 hypersensitivity reactions (T2HR), which can lead to severe cytopenia and. Types-1. Immediate Hypersensitivity-Because the symptoms are manifest within minutes or hours after a sensitized recipient encounters antigen. It is mediated by humoral branch initiated by antibody or antigen-antibody complexes 2. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH)-It is so named in recognition of the delay of symptoms until days after exposure Type II hypersensitivity: Or cytotoxic reactions, are antibody dependent, IgG or IgM binds to the own body cell surface after being altered by a protein, so the immune system recognizes as non-self (foreign) attacks and destroys the cell by fixing a protein called complement, which in turn forms the Membrane Attack Complex and destroy the cell, the most famous is hemolytic anemias and some.

80P - Examples of Immune Complex-Mediated Diseases, Type

Multiple Choice Questions on Hypersensitivity Reaction

Type IV or delayed-type hypersensitivity. Type IV hypersensitivity typically occurs at least 48 hours after exposure to an antigen. It involves activated T cells, which release cytokines, macrophages attracted by these cytokines, and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Delayed-type hypersensitivity and granuloma play a major role in tissue damage observed. An allergy is defined as an immune response induced by exposure to an allergen. Austrian pediatrician Clemens Pirquet first used the term allergy in 1906. Hypersensitivity reactions can be divided into four groups: type I, type II, type III and type IV, based on the mechanisms involved. Hypersensitivity (Allergic Reaction): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications. 2 Hypersensitivity - Type II Type II hypersensitivity reactions are caused by IgG or IgM antibodies against cell surface and extracellular matrix antigens. Antibodies to intracellular components also occur. These are not normally pathogenetic, although they may be diagnostically useful

rheumatoid_arthritis [TUSOM | Pharmwiki]

Type II (antibody-mediated) hypersensitivity There are a ton of diseases that have an underlying type II hypersensitivity reaction going on. Here's a partial list: 1. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: the patient makes antibodies to red cell antigens for some reason (not a good thing to do) which end up causing hemolysis. 2 Hypersensitivity case studies with information on patient presentation, differential diagnosis, immunology discussion and evaluation on your understandin 2 Kanji S & Chant C. (2010). Allergic and hypersensitivity reactions in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med, 38(6), S162-S168. 3 Gobel BH. (2005). Chemotherapy-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Onc Nurs Forum, 32(5), 1027-1035. 4 Syrigou E, Makrilia N, Koti I, et. al. (2009). Hypersensitivity reactions to antineoplastic agents: an overview Serum #2 Serum #3 Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Mediated •Serum Sickness: Systemic Arthus-like reaction -(Pirquet, C., von and B. Schick. 1905. Serum sickness. Franz Denticke, Leipzig) ‣-Rash, fever, lymphadenopathy and arthralgias in recipients of anti-diphtheria antisera made in horses (hint: 2-3 weeks post-infusion The reaction is mediated by specific subsets of CD4+ helper T cells (Th-1 and Th-17 cells) or by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Type IV hypersensitivity occurs 24 hours after contact with an antigen, usually starting at 2 or 3 days and often last for many days. For this reason, type IV hypersensitivity reaction is termed as delayed hypersensitivity Type II Hypersensitivity Complement dependent reactions: Antibody is directed against antigen on cells (such as circulating red blood cells) or extracellular materials (basement membrane). The resulting Ag-Ab complexes activate complement (via the classic pathway), leading to cell lysis or extracellular tissue damage